Iraq a story of a land in permanent turmoil.
For centuries Iraq, in the land of the two rivers have been, subject to invasion due to its rich oil fields and ideal farming condition. From the creation of the made up state of Kuwait which robbed Iraq of all its ports to the crippling sanctions placed upon it by US and British forces, Iraq has always been the victim of dirty politics.
Iraq was the cradle of civilisation, people first settled in the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where the established numerous communities. By 2900 BC Mesopotamia was a patchwork of 30 odd self-governing states each with their own kings, with nobilities and bureaucracy and various deities (many reptilian), with a structured priesthood. Rival cities formed alliances.
Sagon the Great rose to be the King of all Babylon. Sagon’s story is very similar to Moses’. Eventually he over through the King of Kish and he conquered the entire empire from Persia to Egypt. He standardised weights and measures making it possible to trade over vast distances. He was also an excellent military strategist and formed the first real army. However the kingdom was still vulnerable and in 2197, the Akkadian empire fell to raiders from the Zagros Mountains in Persia.
In 1792 BC, Hammurabi receives the Hammurabi Code, He also unified the Mesopotamian people like Sagon before him.
The Barbarian Amorites attacked in 1200 BC, however by 900 BC, they had been completely assimilated into the Mesopotamian culture. They became governors, farmers, businessmen etc. The even founded the city of Babylon.
By 1000 BC, Babylonians found themselves at war with the Assyrians. The Assyrians had occupied the lands of Northern Mesopotamia since 4000 BC, however, they now set their minds on occupying all of Mesopotamia. Babylonia had no intention of bowing down before Assyria.
The feuding between the two states ended in 704 BC when the Assyrian leader Sennacherib took control of Babylon and quelled the many uprisings. Sennacherib eventually put is son, Assur-nãdin-sumi the crown Prince in charge of Babylon however in 688 BC Sennacherib’s son, Assur-nãdin-sumi was captured and killed by an invading army Sennacherib blamed the Babylonians for failing to protect him he took his anger out on the Babylonian government killing them all, destroyed their building, took down the status of their gods and cursed the city.
Sennacherib’s vengeance on Babylon was so severe that his own people were scared that it would incur the wrath of the gods. Sennacherib’s son Esarhaddon, eventually killed him.
Upon Sennacherib’s dead his youngest son Esarhaddon assume control of the empire in 688 BC. Esarhaddon formed the world’s first library.
In 620 BC the Babylonians reclaimed the Assyrian territory through the leadership of Nebuchadnezzar.
In 605 BC Nebuchadnezzar died and was succeeded by Nebuchadnezzar II his son. Nebuchadnezzar’s strategy was to invade other township and if they didn’t comply (pay a tribute) to Babylon then he would ship the trouble makers back to Babylon. The government of the offending township would be replaced by a puppet government. Meanwhile, those shipped to Babylon would join one big 'melting pot' of civilisations.
Nebuchadnezzar II sunk large amounts of money into making Babylon the greatest city on Earth. Nebuchadnezzar was a perfectionist he had the gates of Babylon rebuilt three times. Known as the Magnificent Ishtar Gate of Babylon. They featured the god Ishtar and Babylon’s first God Marduk.
Around 500 BC Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon when he united upper and lower the Mesopotamian. Babylon was then conquered by Alexander the Great around 300 BC.
Over the next thousand years, Mesopotamia would be ruled by a succession of Greek and Persian rulers. Meanwhile, Babylon turned to dust. By 700 AD Mesopotamia was controlled by the Great Sassanian Empire for the last 300 plus years.
In 630 AD The Sassanian Empire was challenged by an Arab empire. Despite being outnumbered 30 to one the Arabs won the battle of Al Qadisya when the Sassanian leader was captured and killed and Sassanian’s scattered unsure of what to do.
Mesopotamia was now in Arab hands the Sassanian Empire was doomed. It is believed, that it was at this time Mesopotamian was first referred to as Iraq. A name derived from the sematic word meaning water. In reference to the Fertile Crescent.
In 661 BC a disagreement over how the Islamic leaders should be chosen had manifested itself. This today is the Sunni, Shia conflict. The Sunni believe that the caliphate should be elected while Shia’s would only accept a descendant of Mohammed or his brother.
In 750 AD The Abbasids claimed they had the right to rule due to a descendant from Mohammed’s great Uncle. Like the Shia, they believed that the spirit of Islam had been violated by the Sunni’s (the Ommaya). The Abbasids claimed descendancy from the uncle of Mohammed the murdered the entire ruling family of the Ommaya and made their settlement in what would become Baghdad. It was perfectly situated for defence and trade. By the end of the eighth century, Baghdad was considered one of the richest and leaned cities in the world at that time. Science. Medicine a Scholarship were revered. Over the next three centuries, Baghdad would survive wars, floods, and fire, however…
Genghis Khan’s Mongols were on the march. In 1257 Hulagu grandson of Genghis Khans set his sights on Baghdad. The 35th Caliphate of the Abbasids refused Hulagu issue of surrender and after thirty days of fighting Baghdad fell to the Mongols. In several weeks of raping and pillaging 100, 000 people were killed. The Mongols destroyed all the libraries and literature accrued by Baghdad. Hulagu dynasty known as Il Khanid continued to rule over Iraq for centuries to come. The devastation of the Il Khanid resonated over Iraq for two hundred years, leaving Baghdad as little more than a wasteland.
This was the beginning of the Ottoman Empire the Ottomans were fighting the Persians and Iraq was the battleground in 1600. The Ottomans had built an empire on the back of fighting the Byzantines in what they considered to be a holy war. In 1520 AD the tenth sultan succeeded his father as Emperor, his name Suleyman the Magnificent. Under Suleyman, the Ottoman Empire reach its place as the world’s greatest empire. The Ottomans were Shia Muslims and they imposed their beliefs on all who they conquered.
At the beginning of the 19th Century, the Ottomans divide Iraq into three separate states which is much like Iraq today. Basra which was its only port, Baghdad, and Mosul.
It was assumed by the western power that the Ottoman Empire would have vast amounts of oil. Winston Churchill believed that the power of the future was oil, not coal. Prior to World War I there were already detailed plans to conquer the lower half of the Ottoman Empire. When the Ottoman Empire took Germany’s side in the war the British saw their control of the Middle Eastern Oil potentially threatened. In 1914 the British army occupied the Basra Port partly to protect its oil interest in Iran. They also occupied parts of Palestine. From there Britain initiated attacks on all of Iraq and by the time the war was over Britain had control over all of the Iraqi oil fields plus The Ottomans were in financial debt to the British Empire.
An Arab nationalism movement was dashed by the League of Nations when The Treaty of Versailles handed over control of their would-be independent's nations to France and Britain. Arnold Wilson was in charge of the administration of Iraq.
Enraged as a result of being shut out of negotiations over what to do with their new country 100,000 Iraqi took up arms against their new overlords. Britain in an attempt to quell the violence tried putting a puppet leader in charge, someone who will look favourably on the British control. Winston Churchill invited Prince Faisal al-Hussein to assume the crown of Iraq.
King Faisal al-Hussein was a descendant of the prophet Muhammad. King Faisal al-Hussein was favourable to the British interest however at his urging he was able to get Iraq full membership of the League of Nations in 1932 as a full and independent state.
Nevertheless, by the late 1940’s many Iraqi were voicing their opinions regarding the pro-British regime. Inequality and poverty intensified as the Iraqi government was getting all their revenue from oil, not its people. Marxist philosophy began to grow in the Arab community. The royal family of Iraq continued to grow when in 1953 Feisal II assumed the throne.
In 1958 a military Coup d'État spurred on by nationalism toppled the royal family. The Royal family was executed. And General Abdul-Karim Qassim was installed has the new Prime Minister of the Republic of Iraq.
Political fever in Iraq had switch from Abdul-Karim Qassim a leftist to the extreme right Ba’ath Party, which over through the government in 1963 and executed Qassim. Coronal Abdul-Salam Arif assumed the presidency. Soon after the Coup Arif and his Arab nationalist supporters outmanoeuvred the Ba’ath faction took control they took complete control of the whole government.
The Ba’ath party did not go away, they grew stronger through recruiting of the conservative left and high-ranking military officers. The main leader and organiser were Saddam Hussein. In 1966 Coronal Abdul-Salam Arif was killed in a helicopter accident, he was succeeded by his brother Abdul-Rahman Arif, unskilled in politics. In 1968 Arif was toppled in a bloodless coup to the Ba’ath Party.
General Ahmed Hassan Al-Bakr assumed control. His vice chairman and second in charge was Saddam Hussein. Saddam’s chief role was to eliminate anyone who opposed him or the Ba’ath Party. Saddam built the secret police. The secret police were to build a fear with people not unlike the thought police in George Orwell’s 1984. After a decade in charge, Al-Bakr and Hussain had built Iraq into a totalitarian state.
In 1979 Saddam Hussain proclaimed himself the nation’s new leader.
Saddam’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 lead quickly to the Gulf War of 1991. Over the next 12 years, the Iraq people endured economic destruction, weapons inspections, and repeated air strikes. In 2002 George W Bush insisted that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction and in 2003 the Iraqi people were inflicted with full-scale American mite. Before the year was out Saddam had been ousted and captured.
Six months before The American invasion of Iraq, Saddam Hussain stopped trading his oil in US dollars and started trading in Euros. As soon as the Americans took control over Iraq they changed the trade of oil back to US dollars.
According to a 'World New' article in 2014, the Iraq Death Toll reached 500,000 Since Start Of U.S.-Led Invasion. A high price to pay since the invasion in 2002 was under the false pretences.