A Geiger counter is a device used for measuring radiation it also is calibrated for reading, 32 – 36 counts per minute is standard background radiation levels.

A doses metre is sensitive to radiation levels

An Alpha particle is made up of two protons that are positively charged and two and neutron particle zero neutrally charged, they have an electrical charge the charge is zero.

An Atom is the smallest particle of an element, it is said to be because it retains the characteristics of the element, smell etc. The nucleus of the atom contains the positive protons and the neutral or zero charged neutron. The nucleus in surrounded by the electron cloud. Electrons are found 90% of the time around the nucleus orbitals.

We use the word Subatomic to describe the three particles that are smaller than the Atom. Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.

The Proton is written as (p+) a proton is so small it is written as 1.675 x 10-24g which is 10 to the power of 24 grams. A proton is described as 1 a.m.u (atomic mass unit). They are found in the nucleus along with neutron.

A Neutron (n0) has a zero electrical charge. It’s a tiny bit bigger in weight however they have the same exact mass as a proton.

Electrons (e-) are negatively charged. An electron is a lot smaller than a proton or a neutron. 9.11 x 10-28 grams. 1/2000 a.m.u (atomic mass unit) one two-thousandths smaller. The move around the nucleus in orbitals no structured orbits but irregular orbits.  


Quarks which compose protons and neutrons do seem to have intrinsic (belonging naturally; essential) mass. This is only 1% of the mass of the atom. Most of the energy of the atom is the combined kinetic (relating to or resulting from motion) energy of those quarks.

The Quantum (a discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents) Field theory describes the exciton within fields, add some energy to that field and the electron flutters like a guitar string. The field vibrates, and that vibration is the electron. It’s not just electrons every elementary particle is a vibration in its own field. These vibrations with the fields connect with each other transferring energy, momentum, charge between particles and fields.

If an electron is massless it should travel at the speed of light, however, these particles are no weightless they evolve.

The electron as a type of spin called chirality, it can spin clockwise or counter clockwise relative to the direction of motion (This is called left-handedness and right-handedness), the spin constantly flips back or forward meaning it evolves, it does experience time so it must have mass. It has been weighed 9.109 x 10^24 kilograms. Different sort of changeability means that the neutrino has mass.

The photon (a particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency) is definitely weightless. It travels at the speed of light and experiences its entire existence in an instant. It has spin, but the spin never flips. A photon only changes if it bumps into something else. The photon and the electron are just excitations in their own field.

A photon can cross the entire observable universe without bumping into thing whereas the electron is constantly bumping into things. There is something in the sub straight everywhere that impleads the electron is the Higgs field.

The universe is not Ambidextrous it actually cares whether an electron has a left or right-handed Chirality. This affect only lets the left-handed cosmic force of an electron. It won’t let an electron flip from left to right unless it can ditch its weak hypo charge, or flip back again unless it can pick some up. Where does it go to and come from? The Higgs field.

While most quantum fields hover around the zero and empty space, The Higgs field has a positive strength at all points in the universe. In some stunning quantum weirdness, the multi-component not only carries the weak hypo charge but manages to take on all possible values of this charge simultaneously. This makes the Higgs field an infinite source and sink of weak hypo charge. The electron is bombarded by a flow of particles into and out of the Higgs Field in all directions. Giving and taking way the weak hypo charge in a short period of time.

On its own, the electron would travel at light speed, trapped in the Higgs Field the electron feels the mass. How do we know if it’s true? Simply because Quantum Field theory holds together if it is, without a mass-giving field, how do we prove it?

In 1964 Dr. Peter Higgs proposed that there was an energy field that covered the earth. The energy field is now called the Higgs Field. The reason he proposed this was no-one understood why some subatomic particles have a great deal mass while other has little some have none at all. The energy that Higgs proposed would interact with the subatomic particles and give then their mass.

Using water as an example the water would be the Higgs field while the fish swims easily through the water like a low mass subatomic particle, a less aerodynamic object like an overweight person would struggle through the water like through the Higgs Field. The lightest subatomic particle is an electron while the biggest is the Top Quark about 350 thousand times bigger than the electron. They are both believed to the same size, zero size. The top quark is more massive than the electron simply because it interacts more with the Higgs Field.

The Higgs-Boson is the smallest part of the Higgs Field, again using water as an example, water is a solid, but it can be broken down into it smallest molecules H2O, likewise, the Higgs-Boson is breaking the Higgs field down into its smallest possible molecules. This was all just theory, The Higgs Field and Higgs-Boson haven’t been proven scientifically yet, however:


On 4th July 2012, CMS announced the discovery of a new proton to the world. The Higgs-Boson.


The Higgs Boson can vibrate around its baseline value which gives us the boson (a subatomic particle, such as a photon, which has zero or integral spin). This particle has nothing to do with giving anything mass, however, if we observe the particle it also means that this field exists.

The Higgs Boson exists as a mass throughout the universe, it is theoretic.  Finding the Higgs boson was the mission of The Large Hadron Collider at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). In 2012 The Large Hadron Collider spotted the debris produced by the decay of an unknown particle.


Those decay products are constant with the highly unknown Higgs Bosom. Seems likely The Large Hadron Collider did produce the Higgs Boson. There is still a lot that is unknown and the Higgs Boson decays at a rate of 10-22 seconds.